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CALENDAR (29)  


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Calendar
Judaism uses a lunar/solar calendar consisting of months that begin at the new moon. Each year has 12 or 13 months, to keep it in sync with the solar year. See Jewish Calendar; The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look; Current Calendar; Jewish Holidays.


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Adar
The twelfth month of the Jewish year, occurring in February/March. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Av
The fifth month of the Jewish year, occurring in July/August. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Aviv (ah-VEEV)
Lit. Spring (the season of the year). The Bible frequently speaks of the "month of Aviv," which refers to the month of Nissan, the first month of the Jewish year occurring in early Spring, the month when Passover occurs. You will sometimes see it spelled "Abib" because the letter used for "v" in this word is also used for "b" in other words. See Months of the Jewish Year.
B.C.E.
Before the Common (or Christian) Era. Another way of saying B.C.
Beginning of Day
A day on the Jewish calendar begins at sunset. When a date is given for a Jewish holiday, the holiday actually begins at sundown on the preceding day. See When Holidays Begin.
Birkat Hachamah (BEER-kaht hah-chah-MAH)
The Blessing of the Sun, once every 28 years, when the halakhic vernal equinox occurs on the fourth day at the 0 hour of the day (6 PM Tuesday). The blessing is recited at dawn of that day on the Jewish calendar, which is Wednesday morning (a Jewish day starts at sunset and continues until sunset on the next secular day).
C.E.
Common (or Christian) Era. Used instead of A.D., because A.D. means "the Year of our L-rd," and we do not believe that Jesus is our L-rd.
Calendar
Judaism uses a lunar/solar calendar consisting of months that begin at the new moon. Each year has 12 or 13 months, to keep it in sync with the solar year. See Jewish Calendar; The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look; Current Calendar; Jewish Holidays.
Cheilek (pl. Chalakim) (KHEHY-lehk; khah-LAHK-eem)
A unit of time used in calculating the Jewish calendar, corresponding to 3-1/3 seconds, more commonly referred to in English as a "part." There are 18 parts in a minute and 1080 parts in an hour. See The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look - Calendar Essentials.
Cheshvan
The eighth month of the Jewish year, occurring in October/November. Sometimes called Marcheshvan (bitter Cheshvan) because it is the only month with no holidays. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Dechiyah (pl. Dechiyot) (d'-KHEE-yah; d'-khee-YOHT)
A rule postponing the date of the new year when calculating the Jewish Calendar. There are four dechiyot, but some are more commonly applied than others. See The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look - Calculating the Calendar.
Elul
The sixth month of the Jewish year, a time of repentance in preparation for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. See also Months of the Jewish Year.
Erev
Lit. evening. 1) The evening part of a day, which precedes the morning part of the same day because a "day" on the Jewish calendar starts at sunset. See Jewish Holidays - When Holidays Begin. 2) The daytime before a holiday or observance that begins in the evening. For example, if your calendar says that Yom Kippur is on September 25, then Yom Kippur begins the evening of September 24, which is the same Hebrew day as the daytime part of September 25, and the daytime part of September 24 is "Erev Yom Kippur". Some people would also refer to the evening part of September 24 as "Erev Yom Kippur," though that evening part is actually Yom Kippur.
Iyar
The second month of the Jewish year, occurring in April/May. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Kislev
The ninth month of the Jewish year, occurring in November/December. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Leap Year
A year with an extra month, to realign the Jewish lunar calendar with the solar year. See Jewish Calendar.
Molad (moh-LAHD)
Lit. birth. The new moon, which marks the beginning of the month on the Jewish calendar. See The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look - Calendar Essentials.
Nissan
The first month of the Jewish year, occurring in March/April. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Parshah (PAHR-shah)
A weekly Torah portion read in synagogue. To find this week's portion, check the Current Calendar.
Rosh Chodesh (ROHSH CHOH-desh)
Lit. head of the month. The first day of a month, on which the first sliver of the new moon appears. It is a minor festival today, though it was a more significant festival in ancient times. See also Jewish Calendar; The Jewish Calendar: A Closer Look.
Sanhedrin (sahn-HEE-drin)
The "Supreme Court" of the ancient Jewish state, in the tradition established in Exodus chapter 18. According to tradition, the Oral Torah was given to Moses and passed on a continuous line to Joshua, then to the elders, then to the prophets then to the Sanhedrin. It decided difficult cases and cases of capital punishment. It also fixed the calendar, taking testimony to determine when a new month began.
Shabbat Ha-Chodesh (shah-BAHT hah-CHOH-desh)
The sabbath on which we read Parshat Ha-Chodesh, one of the Four Parshiyot, special Torah readings added to the weekly cycle of readings during the month before Pesach (Passover). Parshat Ha-Chodesh establishes the Hebrew calendar.
Shevat
The eleventh month of the Jewish year, occurring in January/February. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Sivan
The third month of the Jewish year, occurring in May/June. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Tammuz
The fourth month of the Jewish year, occurring in June/July. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Tevet
The tenth month of the Jewish year, occurring in December/January. See Months of the Jewish Year.
Tisha B'Av (TISH-uh BAHV)
Lit. The Ninth of Av. A fast day commemorating the destruction of the First and Second Temples, as well as other tragedies.
Tishri
The seventh month of the Jewish year, during which many important holidays occur. See also Months of the Jewish Year.
Year
Judaism uses a lunar/solar calendar consisting of months that begin at the new moon. Each year has 12 or 13 months, to keep it in sync with the solar year. Years are counted from the date of Creation. See Jewish Calendar.


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