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Jewish Genealogy

Level: Basic

• Jewish genealogy isn't easy, but it isn't as hard as you might think
• Many things you "know" about Jewish genealogy aren't true
• With a systematic approach, you should be able to trace back to your immigrant ancestors or farther

See also:
Jewish Names

In the past, most Jews were not as interested in documenting their pedigrees as gentiles were. In recent years, however, genealogy has become a popular hobby for both Jews and gentiles, as evidenced by popular television shows like "Who Do You Think You Are?" Jewish genealogical research has also taken on an added importance for those moving to Israel, because the increasingly strict Israeli rabbinate requires higher levels of proof of Jewish status. See the 2008 article in the New York Times magazine, "How Do You Prove You're a Jew?" by Gershom Gorenberg.

I'm no expert on genealogy, but I have had a great deal of success over the last several years researching my family tree and helping others research theirs. From three Jewish parents, I have identified 20 of 24 possible 2nd-great-grandparents born in the mid 1800s; 15 out of 48 possible 3rd-great-grandparents born in the early 1800s, and a few ancestors back to the early 1700s. This page will pass along some of the benefit of my experience.

Debunking Jewish Genealogy Myths 



Many people believe that Jewish genealogy is not possible because no one in the family knows anything, names were changed at Ellis Island, records were destroyed by Hitler, towns don't exist anymore, and so forth. The reality is, these assumptions are not entirely true, and you can probably trace your family tree one or two generations farther than you think you can. Let's look at some of these genealogy myths.

No one in my family knows anything
Have you actually asked them? You might be surprised by what people know. Jews don't talk much about their family history, but that doesn't mean they don't know anything. When I had to do a genealogy project for school in 4th grade, my father told me the names of his grandparents, and I assumed that was all he knew. As an adult, I had done quite a bit of research on my family tree before I found out that my father knew much more: he had compiled a family tree as a bar mitzvah project in the 1950s, while many of the older relatives were still living, that included all eight of his great-grandparents, some of his 2nd-great-grandparents and dozens of aunts and uncles and cousins. In addition, my father's brother and cousin had done ongoing research that I did not know about until recently.
The name was changed at Ellis Island
This is one of the most widespread myths of genealogy, and many people lovingly cling to their family's quirky name-change stories even when confronted with the facts. Sorry to disappoint you, but nobody's name was changed at Ellis Island. Lists of passengers were compiled at the port of departure based on the name found in the ticket. The names given upon arrival in the United States had to match the name on the passenger list and on the ticket. But even if the name were recorded incorrectly at Ellis Island, it wouldn't matter, because you didn't have to use the name that was recorded at Ellis Island. In the days before social security cards, drivers' licenses, credit cards and all the other identification we rely on today, it was perfectly legal to change your name -- both first and last name -- any time you wanted as long as you didn't do it to avoid payment of your debts. And that's the bad news: your family member's name may have changed several times both before and after Ellis Island. My great-great-grandmother was listed on immigration records in 1883 as Babette Reich, but died in 1900 as Bertha Rich. Her son Heinrich became Henry in America. My grandmother was identified as Lee Moldow on her American marriage certificate, but she shows up in early census records as Lena Moldofsky and in an Ellis Island record as Bluma Moldansky. Her brother shows up as Irving, Isidore and Isak. Tracking down family information when the names may have changed repeatedly can be quite challenging.
The records were destroyed by Hitler; the towns don't exist anymore
Annahme des Zusatznamens Israel-Sara angezeigt!During the Holocaust, the Nazis killed people, burned synagogues and wiped out towns, but they did not destroy records. Quite the contrary, they carefully preserved synagogue records of births, deaths and marriages back to the 1840s... so they could identify Jews for extermination. See this puzzling stamp, dated November 30, 1940, on my great-grandfather's 1878 Vienna Jewish birth record: Annahme des Zusatznamens Israel-Sara angezeigt (assume of the other names that Jew-Jewess is indicated). What is the meaning of this cryptic message? It is a reminder to those inspecting the records that they should assume everyone mentioned on the page is Jewish -- not just the parents and children, but also the rabbi, mohel, midwife, witnesses, and so forth. Many of these European records, diligently preserved by the Nazis, are indexed by JewishGen or are available from the Family History Library of the Latter Day Saints (Mormons). Both of these resources are discussed below.

Setting Proper Expectations 



So we see that Jewish genealogy is not as impossible as we might think. But it's not easy either. You are not likely to simply log onto Ancestry (or even JewishGen) and find a comprehensive tree listing your family back 300 years, as some gentiles do. But you should be able to trace your family tree back to the point of immigration (usually between 1860 and 1910), and some American records may give you the names of the parents of those immigrants. Finding records from overseas is a bit more challenging, partly because of the language barrier (most Jews didn't come from English-speaking countries) and partly because of the scattershot availability of those records.

Keep in mind as you do your research that not everything you find will be completely accurate. We live in a society today where every aspect of our lives is so thoroughly documented that it is often hard for us to understand: our ancestors didn't always know their own date of birth let alone their parents'. They didn't necessarily know their mother's maiden name. Even if they knew these things, the information may not have been recorded accurately.

Step-by-Step: Recommendations for Genealogy Research 



This is the approach I have taken in researching my own family trees and also helping other people. It works for me. If you're not as obsessive-compulsive as I am, you may find it easier to simply throw some names into an index and see what sticks. My approach is intended to work from the present back, although you may find that you need to skip around and revisit some of these steps as you go along. Some of these sources are available free on the Internet; some require only free registration; others require subscriptions or fees. I will identify fee sites where necessary.

I would strongly suggest that you track not just your ancestors, but also all of their siblings. The names of siblings will help you locate and verify other records. In fact, you may find it very rewarding to track down all of the descendants of your ancestors. You'll get a lot more results, and you'll end up finding cousins you never knew instead of European gravestones! I've been tracing one branch of my family tree for about 10 years on and off, and I've tracked it back to a 4th-great-grandfather born in Hungary in 1785. I'm rather proud of that, but I'm more proud of having identified more than 700 of his descendants!

1. Talk to everyone in your family
I'm not going to belabor this rather obvious point any more than necessary, but suffice it to say that, as I said above, your family members may know more than you realize. It's a lot easier to find documents confirming what they know and building on it than it is to start from scratch. Talk to them repeatedly in the course of your research: you may find that some of what you discover triggers their memories. I was looking at marriage indexes in New York for my grandparents and found two possibilities. I asked my mother when her parents' anniversary was, and she insisted that she had no idea. "October or April?" I asked. "Oh! Yes, April, of course!"
2. Social Security Death Index (SSDI)
This used to be widely available for free, but concerns about identity theft have made this database less widely available and less useful. The SSDI provides valuable information about most people who died in the United States after 1970 (and many who died before that). If they had a social security number, they should be in there. The SSDI gives their dates of birth and death, their last known residence, and the place where they were living when they got their social security number. It used to give the social security number, but this is less readily available now. With the social security number, or with the information in the SSDI, you can order the SS5 form (their original application for a social security number). The SS5 provides a wealth of information: place of birth, parents' names (including mother's maiden name), address and occupation at the time of the application. I obtained many of these when I first started my genealogical research, but unfortunately, they have gotten quite expensive: they were once $9; now they are $27. If you can't get the parents' names any other way, though, this can be invaluable.
3. Census Records
Censuses in the United States have been taken every ten years from 1790 to the present. Census records from 1790 to 1930 (except 1890) are available online. Starting in 1850, they identify all members of the household (earlier years just listed the head of household and a count of househould members in various categories), and starting in 1880, they specify the relationship of each household member to the head of household (wife, child, mother-in-law, or just boarder or servant). Many censuses are available for free from FamilySearch, the LDS Church's genealogy website; some are available others are only available with a subscription to services like Ancestry (a comprehensive collection). Chances are, you have information about someone who was alive in the U.S. in 1930; if you can find them in the census (and knowing their date of birth from the SSDI will help), you will find their parents, siblings, children, and maybe even grandparents. Census records can give you names, family relationships, age, place of birth, occupation, year of immigration, an approximate date of marriage, and other things. Of course, the information is only as accurate as the knowledge of the person interviewed and the person's ability to communicate with the census taker, but if you get several years of census records, a consensus will develop.
Remember that names can change over time. You may need to use some creativity in searching. It helps to keep track of the names and ages of everyone in the household, siblings as well as direct ancestors. There may be several Harry Brodskys in the census, but how many of them have twin children named Samuel and Beatrice? If you have trouble finding someone, try assuming that one of the facts you know is wrong. Can't find the right Harry Brodsky? Try just searching for just Brodsky with his year and place of birth, or just Harry with his year and place of birth. Also try assuming that part of the surname (usually the end) may have been cut off.
4. Birth, Marriage and Death Records
If your ancestors lived in New York City (and many Jewish ancestors did), the Italian Genealogical Group has created incredible databases indexing New York City birth, marriage and death records. They do not have any of the actual records, but it will give you precise dates if you don't know them (or confirm dates if you do know them). The marriage index can also get you the bride's maiden name (search for the groom, click the link to the bride, and it will have her maiden name).
The index also gives you the certificate numbers, which allow you to order a copy of the original certificate from the New York Municipal Archives. It's not free (about $15 per certificate), but I think it's worth every penny. New York marriage records contain the names of the parents of both bride and groom, including maiden names: four additional names that you may not have had, a whole generation of ancestors who may never have come to America. Death records also have parents' names, though of course this would only be two parents, and the accuracy of the information is only as good as the knowledge of the informant. Birth records give the mother's maiden name.
You may also find useful information in birth, marriage and death notices in the newspaper. In addition to the date of birth, marriage or death, these notices may give you the names of relatives. The parents of the child, bride or groom are routinely mentioned in birth and marriage notices; the names of surviving parents, siblings or children are commonly mentioned in death notices. The age of the decedent is also commonly mentioned in death notices, which gives an approximate date of birth. If your ancestors lived in a city with a large Jewish community, the notices may be included in the local Jewish paper, like Philadelphia's Jewish Exponent (some of which is indexed by JewishGen) or Columbus's Ohio Jewish Chronicle (all issues from 1922-1994 are online and searchable for free). If your ancestors lived in New York, these notices may be available in the New York Times, which has an excellent archive search tool for anything dating back to 1851. Your search strategy will default to Past 30 Days, but you can easily change it to All Results Since 1851. Some other newspapers also have their B/M/D notices searchable online. Ancestry has birth, marriage and death announcements from the NYT and a few other newspapers from 1851 to 2003, but their index of those notices is atrocious. Other good sources of news items are GenealogyBank or NewspaperARCHIVE, which which have outstanding collections of local newspapers, but they are not free. These sources have very different collections.
5. Immigration and Naturalization Records
Early immigration records (before 1900 or so) don't have much information, but later ones can tell you a lot of useful things. Ellis Island has a free search tool for their records, but you may be surprised to learn that not everybody came through Ellis Island! Ellis Island opened in 1892, so if your ancestor came over before that time, you'll have to look elsewhere. Earlier immigrants to New York came through Castle Garden, which also has a free searchable database. Other Jewish immigrants came through Philadelphia, Baltimore or other ports that do not have comprehensive search tools freely available. Many of these records can be found through subscription services like Ancestry.
Early naturalization records (before 1900 or so) do not contain much information, but later naturalization records contain one of the most valuable pieces of information, and one of the hardest to find: the town of birth overseas. Most other kinds of records simply give the country of birth, which may not be very useful because of frequent border changes. Naturalization records are supposed to have the town of birth (though my great-uncle put his "town" of birth as Bessarabia, a country). Many naturalization records can be found on Ancestry and Fold3. Fold3 has changed its focus to a military focus, but it still has naturaliztion records from many courts that Ancestry does not have.
5. Overseas Records
If you've gotten this far, you may be ready to start looking for your immigrant ancestors in their country of origin. JewishGen has transcribed an enormous number of specifically Jewish records, both from overseas and from the United States. Their searches include a special Soundex (sounds like) strategy that takes into account the longer names that are common among Jews and the pronunciations of Jewish names. The navigation on that site is less than intuitive, not made any better by Ancestry.com's recent partnership with the site. They are organized by country of origin, but the creators of the site are aware of the flexibility of borders, and you will find overlap. For example, their Romanian search includes a number of Russian databases, because the boundaries shifted over time. Go to the Complete List of Databases and find the country you are interested in, then search the database. You will need a free registration to look at the transcribed records. An annual donation to JewishGen will give you enhanced search capabilities.
A few years ago, JewishGen partnered with Ancestry.com, and most of JewishGen's databases were made available to search through Ancestry for free on a special Jewish Family History page. You may want to search through both JewishGen and Ancestry; you may have more luck with different search strategies. Be aware that on Ancestry.com, the Location aspect of the search is ... ahem ... less than optimal. I tried searching for records with the Location: Hungary, and it completely missed many of the Hungarian records that I know are in JewishGen, records that appeared when I removed the location criterion. This may improve over time. Also, Ancestry's copy of the data appears not to have been updated since the original partnership with JewishGen, and thousands of records have been added to JewishGen since then.
If your ancestors are from Vienna, GenTeam.at (free with registration) has an excellent and growing collection of Austrian records, most notably an index to the Vienna Matrikel (register of births, marriages and deaths). The information transcribed is incomplete, but most of the Vienna Matrikel is available on microfilm from the LDS Church (see below), and this index will help you find out what records might be on those microfilms. I found dozens of useful records here.
The LDS Church has an increasing number of overseas records available on their Family Search website, so you may want to check that out too.
The LDS Church also has an enormous collection of microfilms available that can be borrowed from their headquarters in Utah for use in your local family history center at an LDS church. For a minimal fee ($6), they will ship the microfilm to your local family history center for you to use for up to a month, then ship it back. It is in a church, but you usually enter through the back entrance, and nobody tries to convert you or witness to you. They're just interested in genealogy, same as you. My local family history center is equipped with a microfilm scanner that allows me to get high-quality scanned images from the films instead of printouts, though I gather that not all family history centers are so well-equipped. You can find the microfilms in their catalog. Here is how you find Jewish records in their catalog:
  1. Search by Place. Use the most specific place you know, preferably a town name. Enter it in the original language: for example, enter Wien, not Vienna. If you know of multiple names for the town, check each one. Click the correct town name in the list of matches that appears.
    1. If you don't find the specific town, try searching for the name of a broader area, like the county or district
  2. You will see a list of topics. Ideally, you want to find the topic Jewish Records. If there is no Jewish Records topic, look for a Civil Registration or a Vital Records topic. In Germany and some other European countries, Jews were included in the same registries as gentiles. Click the topic.
    1. If you don't find any Jewish records in the specific town, try changing to a broader area taking out the town name, leaving only the country and district.
  3. You will see a list of titles that match the topic. Click the title for more information.
  4. You will see some additional information about that title, including whether the title is already available online (microfilms are being added to the online collection every week). It will also tell you the language the source is written in. You can probably figure out records written in Western European languages; Russian or Hebrew will be a lot more difficult if you're not comfortable with the alphabet. Early German records can also be difficult because they used a slightly different alphabet.
  5. Scroll down to the Film Notes section to find the exact film you want. Many titles contain several different microfilms within them. Film Notes will tell you what film and what item on that film holds the year and type of record you want.
  6. Make a note of the film number and the item number (if any). Many microfilms include several different titles on them, sometimes completely unrelated. With the film number, you can order the film at your family history center. You can locate a family history center here. The film may take a few weeks to arrive.
6. Other Record Types
Of course, there are many other kinds of records that may contain interesting or useful information. For example, I have gotten a lot of useful information from WWI and WWII draft registration and enlistment records on Ancestry. These records tell where and when the person was born (sometimes giving the city), whether the person was married (which can help you narrow down the date when your ancestor married), and have other useful information. The mere existence of a registration can confirm that a person was still living in 1942, which is not always easy to deetermine. The WWII draft registration on Ancestry is the "Old Man's Registration," which has men born between 1877 and 1897, which often includes your immigrant ancestors, and it includes the town of birth, which may be hard to find elsewhere.
Travel records from Ancestry's ship manifests collection can also be helpful in determining the date a person was born or married. Older travel records often included a person's marital status, address and date of birth. You may even be able to find your ancestor's passport on Ancestry, which sometimes contains a photograph.

Translation of Foreign Genealogical Terms 



Here are some useful genealogical terms in German and Hungarian, which are the languages of most of the records I have worked with. You may find these terms as column headings in metrical books, the most commonly available source of foreign Jewish records. For additional translations and additional languages, try Google Translate.

English German Hungarian
Name Namen Neve
Age Alt Kora, Életkora
Date Datum Keltje, Ideje
Year Jahr Év
Month Monat Hó, Hónap
Day Tag Nap
Birth Geburt Születési
Child Kind Gyermek
Father Vater Atya
Mother Mutter Anya
Parents Eltern Szüleinek, Szülõk
Marriage Heiraten, Trauung Házasok, Esketési
Bride Braut Mátka
Groom Bräutigam Völegény
Death Sterbens, Tod Halálozás
Decedent Verstorbenen Halott

Jewish and General Genealogy Resources 



Here are links to some sites I have found useful for Jewish genealogy:

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